During ceremony on the Tiwi Islands a series of ‘yoi’ (dances), are performed; some are totemic (inherited from the person’s Mother) and some serve to act out the narrative of newly composed songs. Participants in these ceremonies are painted with turyanginari (the diﬀerent natural ochre colours) in varying designs, transforming the dancers and, in some cases, providing protection against recognition by mapur (spirits). These designs can be applied in diﬀerent ways. Ochre is applied to the body and face. These significant artistic designs collectively are called ‘Jilamara’.